Intuitive Eating – the Science

Avalos, L., T. Tylka, and N. Wood-Barcalow. 2005. The Body Appreciation Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Journal of Body Image 2: 285–297.

Anderson, L., E. Reilly, K. Schaumberg, S. Dmochowski, D. Anderson. 2016. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students. Eating and Weight Disorders. 21(1):83-90.

Andrew R., M. Tiggemann, L. Clark. 2016. Predictors and health-related outcomes of positive body image in adolescent girls: A prospective study. Developmental Psychology 52(3): 463-474.

Andrew R., M. Tiggemann, L. Clark. 2015. Predictors of intuitive eating in adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 56(2):209-214.

Augustus-Horvath, C. and T. Tylka. 2011. The acceptance model of intuitive eating: A comparison of women in emerging adulthood, early adulthood, and middle adulthood. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 58:110-125.

Katie M. Babbott1 · Deborah Mitchison2,3 · Chris Basten3 · Chris Thornton4 · Phillipa Hay6 · Sue Byrne8 · Mandy Goldstein5,6 · Gabriella Heruc6,7 · Bert van der Werf9 · Nathan S. Consedine10 · Marion Roberts1,11 Intuitive Eating Scale‐2: psychometric properties and clinical norms among individuals seeking treatment for an eating disorder in private practice. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. Published online: 19 November 2021 – Findings suggest that the IES-2 may be an appropriate measure for evaluating behaviours relating to IE in community outpatient eating disorder settings, and provide further evidence for the association between IE and positive health outcomes.

Barad A. et al (2019). Associations Between Intuitive Eating Behaviors and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among College Students. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2019 Jun;51(6):758-762.

Barak-Nahum A., Haim LB., and Ginzburg K. 2016. When life gives you lemons: The effectiveness of culinary group intervention among cancer patients. Soc Sci Med.166:1-8.

Barraclought EL et al. (2019). Learning to eat intuitively: A qualitative exploration of the experience of mid-age women. Health Psycholol Open 1:6(1): 2055102918824064. doi: 10.1177/2055102918824064.

Bas M, Karaca KE, Saglam D, Arıtıcı G, Cengiz E, Köksal S, Buyukkaragoz AH. 2017. Turkish version of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2: Validity and reliability among university students. Appetite. 114:391-397.

Bégin C, Carbonneau E, Gagnon-Girouard MP, Mongeau L, Paquette MC, Turcotte M, Provencher V (2018.). Eating-Related and Psychological Outcomes of Health at Every Size Intervention in Health and Social Services Centers Across the Province of Québec. Am J Health Promot. 2018 Jan 1:890117118786326. doi: 10.1177/0890117118786326

Beinter I, Emmerich O, Vollert B, Taylor C, Jacobi (2019). Promoting positive body image and intuitive eating in women with overweight and obesity via an online intervention: Results from a pilot feasibility study. Eat Behav. Aug;34:101307.

Boucher S, Edwards O, Gray A, Nada-Raja S, Lillis J, Tylka TL, Horwath CC (2016). Teaching Intuitive Eating and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Skills Via a Web- Based Intervention: A Pilot Single-Arm Intervention Study. JMIR Res Protoc 2016;5(4):e180 URL: http://www.researchprotocols.org/2016/4/e180

Burnette B. & Mazzeo (2020). An uncontrolled pilot feasibility trial of an intuitive eating intervention for college women with disordered eating … Int J Eat Disorder. June:1–13⁣

Bruce, L., and L. Ricciardelli. 2016. A systematic review of the psychosocial correlates of intuitive eating among adult women. Appetite. 96:454-472.

Bush, H., L. Rossy, L. Mintz, L. Schopp. 2014. Eat for Life: A Work Site Feasibility Study of a Novel Mindfulness-Based Intuitive Eating Intervention. American Journal of Health Promotion 28(6):380-388.

Camilleri, G., C. Méjea, F. Bellisle, V. Andreeva, E. Kesse-Guyot, S. Hercberg, S. Péneau. 2016. Intuitive eating is inversely associated with body weight status in the general population based NutriNet-Santé study. Obesity. doi: 10.1002/oby.21440.

Camilleri, G., C. Méjea, F. Bellisle, V. Andreeva, E. Kesse-Guyot, S. Hercberg, S. Péneau. 2017. Intuitive Eating Dimensions Were Differently Associated with Food Intake in the General Population-Based NutriNet-Santé Study. Journal of Nutrition. Jan;147(1):61-69. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.234088.

Carbonneau E., N. Carbonneau, B. Lamarche, V. Provencher, C. Bégin, M. Bradette-Laplante, C. Laramée, S. Lemieux. 2016. Validation of a French-Canadian adaptation of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 for the adult population. Appetite 105(1): 37-45.

Carbonneau E, Bégin C, Lemieux S, Mongeau L, Paquette MC, Turcotte M, Labonté MÈ, Provencher V. (2017). A Health at Every Size intervention improves intuitive eating and diet quality in Canadian women. Clin Nutr. 36(3):747-754.

Carbonneau N., E. Carbonneau, M. Cantin, M. Gagnon-Girouard. 2015. Examining women’s perceptions of their mother’s and romantic partner’s interpersonal styles for a better understanding of their eating regulation and intuitive eating. Appetite. 92:156-66.

Carraça EV, Leong SL, Horwath CC (2018.). Weight-focused physical activity is associated with poorer eating motivation quality and lower Intuitive Eating in women. J Acad Nutr Diet. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2018.09.011

Carrard I, Rothen S, Rodgers RF (2021). Body image concerns and intuitive eating in older women. Appetite. 2021 Apr 26:105275. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2021.105275

Christoph MJ, Loth KA, Eisenberg ME, Haynos AF, Larson N, Neumark-Sztainer D (2018). Nutrition Facts Use in Relation to Eating Behaviors and Healthy and Unhealthy Weight Control Behaviors. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2018 Mar;50(3):267-274.e1.
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Christoph MJ, et al. (2021) Intuitive Eating is Associated With Higher Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among Adults. J Nutr Educ Behav. Jan 7:S1499-4046(20)30746-6

Christoph MJ et al (2021). Longitudinal associations between intuitive eating and weight-related behaviors in a population-based sample of young adults. Appetite. 160: doi.org/10.1016/appet.2021.105093

Coimbra M, Ferreira C. Making the leap from healthy to disordered eating: the role of intuitive and inflexible eating attitudes in orthorexic behaviours among women. Eat Weight Disord. 2020 Sep 9. doi: 10.1007/s40519-020-00998-1. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 32902789.

Cole, R., H. Clark , J. Heileson, J. DeMay, M.Smith. 2016. Normal Weight Status in Military Service Members Was Associated With Intuitive Eating Characteristic. Military Medicine 181(6):589-595.

Cole R., and K. Horace. 2010. Effectiveness of the “My Body Knows When” Intuitive-eating Pilot Program. American Journal Health Behav 34(3):286-297.

Cole R., Meyer S., Newman T., et al. 2019. The My Body Knows When program increased intuitive eating characteristics in a military population. Mil Med.
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Craven M & Fekete E. (2019). Weight-related shame and guilt, intuitive eating, and binge eating in female college students. Appetite. Oi.10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.03.002

Da Silva, W. R., Neves, A. N., Ferreira, L., Campos, J. A. D. B., & Swami, V. (2018). A psychometric investigation of Brazilian Portuguese versions of the Caregiver Eating Messages Scale and Intuitive Eating Scale-2. Eating and Weight Disorders – Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. doi:10.1007/s40519-018-0557

Daundasekara SS, Beasley AD, O’Connor DP, Sampson M, Hernandez D, Ledoux T. 2017. Validation of the Intuitive Eating Scale for pregnant women. Appetite.112:201-209.

Denny, K., K. Loth, M. Eisenberg, D. Neumark–Sztainer, D. 2013. Intuitive eating in young adults. Who is doing it, and how is it related to disordered eating behaviors? Appetite 60:13–19.

DeVille DC, Erchull MJ, Mailloux JR. (2021). Intuitive eating mediates the relationship between interoceptive accuracy and eating disorder risk. Eat Behav. Mar 3;41:101495. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2021.101495.

Dockendorff, S., T. Petrie, C. Greenleaf, S. Martin. 2012. Intuitive Eating Scale: An examination among early Adolescents. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(4):604611.

Duarte C., Ferreira C., Pinto-Gouveia J., Trindade I.A., Martinho A. 2017. What makes dietary restraint problematic? Development and validation of of the Inflexible Eating Questionnaire. Appetite. 114:146-154.

Eneli, I., T. Tylka , J. Lumeng. 2015. Maternal and Child Roles in the Feeding Relationship: What Are Mothers Doing? Clinical Pediatrics. 54(2):179–182.

Ellis, J., A. Galloway, R. Webb, D. Martz, C. Farrow. 2016. Recollections of pressure to eat during childhood, but not picky eating, predict young adult eating behavior. Appetite. 97:58-63. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2015.11.020.

Galloway A., C. Farrow, D. Martz. 2010. Retrospective reports of child feeding practices, current eating behaviors, and BMI in college students. Obesity, 18, 1330-1335.

Gan WY and Yeoh WC (2017). Associations between body weight status, psychological well- being and disordered eating with Intuitive Eating among Malaysian undergraduate university students. Int J Adolesc Med Health. Sept 13.

Gast, J., H. Madanat, A. Nielson. 2011. Are Men More Intuitive When It Comes to Eating and Physical Activity? Americna Journal Men Health. doi: 10.1177/1557988311428090.

Gast, J., A. Nielson, A. Hunt, J. Leiker. 2015. Intuitive eating: associations with physical activity motivation and BMI. American Journal of Public Health. 29(3):e91-9. doi: 10.4278/ajhp.130305-QUAN-97.

Gravel K., A. Deslauriers, M. Watiez, M. Dumont, A. Dufour Bouchard, V. Provencher. 2014. Sensory-Based Nutrition Pilot Intervention for Women. The Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietics 114 :99-06.


Gravel K., et al. 2014. Effect of sensory-based intervention on the increased use of food-related descriptive terms among restrained eaters. Food Quality and Preference. 32:271-276.

Hahn K., M. Wiseman, J. Hendrickson, J. Phillips, E. Hayden. 2012. Intuitive Eating and College Female Athletes. Psychology of Women Quarterly. doi: 10.1177/0361684311433282

Hawks, S., H. Madanat, J. Hawks, A. Harris. 2005. The relationship between intuitive eating and health indicators amongcollegewomen. American Journal of Health Education 36, 331- 336.

Hawks, S., R. Merrill, H. Madanat. 2004 . The Intuitive Eating Validation Scale: preliminary validation. American Journal of Health Education, 35, 90-98.

Hawks, S., R. Merrill, T. Miyagawa, J. Suwanteerangkul, C. Guarin, C. Shaofang. 2004. Intuitive eating and the nutrition transition in Asia. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical

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Heileson, J., R. Cole (2011). Assessing Motivation for Eating and Intuitive Eating in Military Service Members. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111 (9S): Page A26.

Herbert, B., J. Blechert, M. Hautzinger, E. Matthias, C. Herbert. 2013. Intuitive eating is associated with interoceptive sensitivity. Effects on body mass index. Appetite 70:22–30.

Homan KJ and Tylka TL. (2018). Development and exploration of the gratitude model of body appreciation in women. Body Image. 2018 Feb 8;25:14-22.
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Horwath, C., Hagmann, D., & Hartmann, C. (2019). Intuitive eating and food intake in men and women: Results from the Swiss food panel study. Appetite. 1(135):61-71. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2018.12.036

Humphrey, L., D. Clifford, M. Neyman Morris. 2015. Health at Every Size College Course Reduces Dieting Behaviors and Improves Intuitive Eating, Body Esteem, and Anti-Fat Attitudes. Journal of Nutrition Education. 47(4):354-360.

Iannantuono, A., and T. Tylka. 2012. Interpersonal and interpersonal links to body appreciation in college women: an exploratory model. Body Image 9(2):227-235.

Jarvela-Reijonen, E., L. Karhunen, E. Sairanen, S. Rantala, J. Laitinen, S. Puttonen, K. Peuhkuri, M. Hallikainen, K. Juvonen, T. Myllymaki, T. Fohr, J. Pihlajamaki, R. Korpela, M.

Ermes, R. Lappalainen, M. Kolehmainen. 2016. High perceived stress is associated with unfavorable eating behavior in overweight and obese Finns of working age. Appetite 103:249-258.

Jarvela-Reijonen, E., et al (2018). The effects of acceptance and commitment therapy on eating behavior and diet delivered through face-to-face contact and a mobile app: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2018 Feb 27;15(1):22.

Katzer, L., A. Bradshaw, C. Horwath, A. Gray, S. O’Brien, J. Joyce 2008. Evaluation of a “nondieting” stress reduction program for overweight women: a randomized trial. American Journal of Health Promotion 22(4):267-274.

Kelly, A., and E. Stephen. 2016. A daily diary study of self-compassion, body image, and eating behavior in female college students. Body Image.17:152-160. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.03.006.

Kelly AC, Miller KE, Stephen E. (2016).The benefits of being self-compassionate on days when interactions with body-focused others are frequent. Body Image. Dec;19:195-203. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.10.005.

Kerin JL, Webb HJ, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ (2019). Intuitive, mindful, emotional, external and regulatory eating behaviours and beliefs: An investigation of the core components. Appetite. 2019 Jan 1;132:139-146. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2018.10.011.

Keirns NG & Hawkins MAW (2019). The relationship between intuitive eating and body image is moderated by measured body mass index. Eat Behav. 23(33):91-96.

Khalsa, A. S., Woo, J. G., Kharofa, R. Y., Geraghty, S. R., DeWitt, T. G., & Copeland, K. A. (2019). Parental intuitive eating behaviors and their association with infant feeding styles among low-income families. Eating Behaviors, 32, 78–84. doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2019.01.001

Khalsa, A, Stough C, Garr K, Copeland K, Kharofa R, Woo J (2019). Factor structure of the Intuitive Eating Scale-2 among a low-income and racial minority population. Appetite. Nov 1;142:104390.

König LM, Sproesser G, Schupp HT, Renner B.(2020). Preference for Intuition and Deliberation in Eating Decision-making: Scale validation and associations with eating behaviour and health. Br J Health Psychol. doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12460.

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Kroon Van Diest, A., and T. Tylka. 2010. The Caregiver Eating Messages Scale: Development and psychometric investigation. Body Image 7:317-326.

Leahy K., Berlin K.S., Banks G.G., Bachman J. 2017. The relationship between Intuitive Eating and postpartum weight loss. Matern Child Health. 21(3):1591-1597.

Lee M et al. (2019). Striving for the thin ideal post-pregnancy: cross-sectional study of intuitive eating in postpartum women. J Reprod Infant Psychol. Apr 30:1-12.

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Linardon J., Tylka T., and Fuller-Tyszkiewicz M. 2021. Intuitive eating and its psychological correlates: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Eating Disorders 2021:1-26.

Linardon J, Mitchell S. 2017. Rigid dietary control, flexible dietary control, and intuitive eating: Evidence for their differential relationship to disordered eating and body image concerns. Eat Behav. 26:16-22.

Luo U, Niu G, Kong F, Chen (2019). Online interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and Chinese adolescent girls’ intuitive eating: The role of broad conceptualization of beauty and body appreciation. Eat Behav. 2019 Apr;33:55-60.

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Mensinger, J., R. Calogero, T. Tylka. 2016. Internalized weight stigma moderates eating behavior outcomes in women with high BMI participating in a healthy living program. Appetite. 102:32-43

Mensinger JL, Calogero RM, Stranges S, Tylka TL (2016).. A weight-neutral versus weight-loss approach for health promotion in women with high BMI: A randomized-controlled trial. Appetite. Oct 1;105:364-74. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.06.006.

Miller K., Kelly A., Stephen E. 2019. Exposure to body focused and non-body focuses other over a week: A preliminary investigation of their unique contributions to college women’s eating and body image. Body Image. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2018.12.003

Moy, J., T. Petrie, S. Dockendorff, C. Greenleaf, S. Martin. 2013. Dieting, exercise, and intuitive eating among early adolescents. Eating Behaviors. 14: 529-532.

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Peschel SKV, Tylka TL, Williams DP, Kaess M, Thayer JF, Koenig J. (2018). Is intuitive eating related to resting state vagal activity? Auton Neurosci. Mar;210:72-75. doi: 10.1016/j.autneu.2017.11.005.

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Quansah D, Gross,J, Gilbert L, Helbling C, Horsch, A, Puder J (2019). Intuitive eating is associated with weight and glucose control during pregnancy and in the early postpartum period in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): A clinical cohort study. Eat Behav 2019 Aug;34:101304.

Ramos, M. H., Silva, J. M., De Oliveira, T. A. V., da Silva Batista, J., Cattafesta, M., Salaroli, L. B., & Soares, F. L. P. (2020). Intuitive eating and body appreciation in type 2 diabetes. Journal of Health Psychology, 135910532095079. doi:10.1177/1359105320950791

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Richard A, Meule A, Georgii C, Voderholzer U, Cuntz U, Wilhelm F, Blechert J. Associations between interoceptive sensitivity, intuitive eating, and body mass index in patients with anorexia nervosa and normal-weight controls. Eur Eat Disord Rev. Sep;27(5):571-577.

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Rochefort G, Provencher V, Castonguay-Paradis S, Perron J, Lacroix S, Martin C, Flamand N, Di Marzo V, Veilleux A. Intuitive eating is associated with elevated levels of circulating omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived endocannabinoidome mediators. Appetite. 2021 Jan 1;156:104973. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2020.104973. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

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Soares FLP, Ramos MH, Gramelisch M, de Paula Pego Silva R, da Silva Batista J, Cattafesta M, Salaroli LB. Intuitive eating is associated with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

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Tylka, T. 2006. Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. Journal of Counseling Psychology 53:226-240.

Tylka,T., and K. Homan. 2015. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating. Body Image. 15:90-97.

Tylka, T., R. Calogero, and S. Danielsdottir. 2015. Is intuitive eating the same as flexible dietary control? Their links to each other and well-being could provide an answer. Appetite 95: 166-175.

Tylka, T., R. Calogero, and S. Danielsdottir. 2019. Intuitive eating is connected to self-reported weight stability in community women and men. Eat Disorder. 1:1-9. doi: 10.1080/10640266.2019.1580126.

Tylka, T., J. Lumeng, I. Eneli. 2015. Maternal intuitive eating as a moderator of the association between concern about child weight and restrictive child feeding. Appetite. Dec 1;95:158- 65.

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Tylka, T. 2006. Development and psychometric evaluation of a measure of intuitive eating. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 226-240.

Tylka, T., and J. Wilcox. 2006. Are intuitive eating and eating disorder symptomatology opposite poles of the same construct? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53, 474-485.

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By Evelyn Tribole

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